Professional Development

A. Activity Explanation: Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping of Words with Digraphs

A. Activity Explanation: Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping of Words with Digraphs

A phoneme-grapheme map allows words to be mapped according to the number of sounds that the letters or graphemes represent. A grapheme is the spelling of a sound. A digraph is a grapheme that spells one sound with two letters (e.g,.sh, th, ch). The activity connects sounds in words to their spellings. Each box represents one sound, and the instructor explains how to write a sound spelled with a digraph into the phoneme-grapheme map.

B. Word Chains

B. Word Chains

What are Word Chains?

In this video, the instructor engages in a word chain activity with the puppet, who plays the part of a beginning reader. Word chains help beginning readers to pay attention to all the sounds in a word. It is best for students to have their own set of letter cards as you guide them to identify a one-sound change in a word, and then select the correct letter or letters to spell the new word.

This activity is valuable in promoting a strong link between spelling and pronunciation. To add meaning, it is important to have a picture of each word and/or act out the meaning of each word used in the chain. Notice how the instructor refers to a picture or makes an action to represent the word meaning.

Word chains in the lesson guides prepare students to read the words and/or vowel patterns in the book. Below are examples of word chains designed to target specific skills.

Examples of chains that target specific parts of words:
Change the beginning sound only: mop-->hop-->top-->stop
Change the ending sound only: hip-->hit-->him-->hid
Change the beginning and ending sounds: sip-->sit-->bit-->bin-->pin-->pit
Change the beginning, ending and medial sounds: sit-->sat-->pat-->pot-->hot-->hut-->hit-->hip