Professional Development

A. What is the speech to print match?

A. What is the speech to print match?

An emergent reader is a student who does not understand the relationship between the alphabet and words that are spoken. We say this child is a pre-alphabetic reader. “Pre” means before the alphabet.

We want to help the student who is an emergent reader realize that words that are spoken can be written on a page. The words are spelled with letters that represent the sounds in the words as they are spoken. This is called the alphabetic principle. It is a very important principle to learning to read in English.

One way we can help the pre-alphabetic reader understand that the words we speak are are made up of sounds that are spelled by letters is to teach them to make a match between spoken words and printed words. We call this the speech to print match. It is a concept of print.

To teach the speech to print match we use a poem or chant our students have memorized and can recite by heart (from memory).

Then we can teach our students to point to each individual word in the poem as it is spoken. We the spaces between the words, the pictures, and the beginning letters as clues to figure out what each word says.

B. How to Start, Learn a Poem

B. How to Start, Learn a Poem

Ram, the puppet, shows that he has memorized the poem “Little Goat” before we start a lesson to teach the print-to-speech match.

In the second part of the video, Ram has difficulty with the speech-to-print match. For example when he gets to the word little, he is confused because it is two syllables (lit-tle) and so he moves away from the word while he is still saying it. He does not have a complete speech to print match. Why might the students do better on the last line of the poem?

C. Helping the Emergent Reader Use Clues

C. Helping the Emergent Reader Use Clues

Think about the clues that the teacher uses to help Ram match the spoken word to the print. Emergent readers are learning sound and letter correspondences. The teacher uses this to help Ram find the word goat. She starts with the first sound and then models how to check the last sound of the word goat. This works for short, one-syllable words.

D. Helping the Oral Language Practice: Listing Strategy

D. Helping the Oral Language Practice: Listing Strategy

One activity that can help student learn to recognize and use high-frequency words is called a listing strategy. In this example sentences are taken out of the book and a blank space replaces a verb or a noun. The teacher changes pictures for the missing words, so students practice using many different verbs or nouns at the same time they are reading and saying the high-frequency words over and over. This strategy develops vocabulary and high-frequency word recognition at the same time.

Directions for Teacher: Write the sentence starter and leave a blank to fill in different words that make sense.