Professional Development

A. Activity Explanation: Sentence Expansion Vocabulary from the Story

A. Activity Explanation: Sentence Expansion Vocabulary from the Story

This video explains the demonstration that follows in section B. The instructor takes the language out of the book so students can have more practice with using the vocabulary and sentence structures from the story. The instructor explains to expand what students say with more complex language prompted by language cue words such as “because.” The expansion activity involves a combination of a cloze procedure, leaving a blank for students to fill in a missing word, and having the words available for students to use. Completing the blank in the sentence with a word from the text reinforces the reading of the words the student read in the book.

B. Activity Demonstration: Sentence Expansion With Vocabulary From the Story

B. Activity Demonstration: Sentence Expansion With Vocabulary From the Story

In this activity a puppet plays the role of a student practicing oral language with the vocabulary and sentence structure from the story, “We Play Cricket.” The student reads the sentence with a blank left to fill in a verb. The teacher prompts the student with a question and has verbs from the book on hand to complete the sentence. The process is repeated several times, and each time the student responds to a question prompt:
What did they do in the game?
What else did they do?
What happens at the end of the game?
The student practices reading the sentences over and over with different words inserted.
Finally, a question is introduced along with sentence frame.
The student practices responding to a question, “What part of the cricket game do you want to play?” “I want to _________.” The the teacher prompts the student to expand her sentence and tell why she likes that part of the game.

C. Activity Explanation: Infer Characters’ Feelings

C. Activity Explanation: Infer Characters’ Feelings

An important part of teaching comprehension is teaching students to make inferences using the text, pictures, and what they already know to fill in missing information or come to conclusions about the characters and story events. The instructor models how to teach students to use language to talk about the story and infer the characters’ feelings. Language cue words are that convey feelings are printed on hearts, and connecting words are printed on brightly colored signs. The connecting word “because” helps students to make a causal connection statement that gives a reason for a feeling.

D. Activity Demonstration: Using Language Cue Words to Infer A Character’s Feelings

D. Activity Demonstration: Using Language Cue Words to Infer A Character’s Feelings

The instructor models for the student how to look closely at the text and pictures to infer a character’s reaction to an event in the story. The instructor prompts the student to think about how she would feel if she hit the ball. The student states, “Ram felt excited because he hit the ball.” The instructor uses the language cue word “because” to prompt an expansion of the sentence to include a reason why the character felt excited. The student is given feedback by the instructor that identifies that she gave a reason why the character felt excited.
The importance of this demonstration is threefold:
1. It shows the kinds of support that help develop students’ oral language so they can communicate about text.
2. It shows how to integrate the text and pictures to make inferences about characters’ reactions to story events.
3. It shows how to give feedback to students that identifies what they did so they are more likely to do it again.

E. Activity Demonstration: Academic Language Frame

E. Activity Demonstration: Academic Language Frame

This video demonstrates how to use an academic language frame to help a student make an inference statement. The student responds to the instructor’s prompt, “Tell me how Dev feels, but use your academic language frame.”
The student gives a complete response following the frame: “I think Dev feels upset because Ram hit the ball.”
The instructor follows up with feedback: “I like the way you used the academic language frame to make your sentence.“
The point of this video is to show how students can be supported in expanding their oral language using tools such as an academic language frame.